This article is about the Holy See of Rome. Not to be confused with Vatican City. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in The Holy City – Various – Home For Christmas: Volume 2 as an independent state, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church.

It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. See of Rome viewed as the central government of the Catholic Church. John Lateran, symbolises the Holy See. The Secretariat of State is the only body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have extraterritorial rights similar to those of embassies.

The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage. The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See coordinates the finances of the Holy See departments and supervises the administration of all offices, whatever be their degree of autonomy, that manage these finances. The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Pope’s death or resignation. It instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422. The Holy See has been recognized, both in state practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States.

Foreign relations with the Holy See. Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office speaks of Vatican City as the “capital” of the Holy See, although it compares the legal personality of the Holy See to that of the Crown in Christian monarchies and declares that the Holy See and the state of Vatican City are two international identities. Coat of arms of the Vatican City. Although the Holy See is closely associated with the Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct. After the Italian seizure of the Papal States in 1870, the Holy See had no territorial sovereignty. The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to “ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See” and “to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs.